Trastornos de la personalidad: tipos y diagnóstico

12 de mayo de 2021 |
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Trastornos de la personalidad: tipos y diagnóstico


Definición de trastorno de la personalidad

El trastorno de la personalidad se define como un patrón permanente de experiencia interna y de comportamiento, que se aparta acusadamente de las expectativas de la cultura del sujeto; se trata de un fenómeno generalizado y poco flexible. Generalmente tiene su inicio en la adolescencia o en la edad adulta temprana y da lugar a un malestar o deterioro importante en las diferentes áreas de la vida. A su vez, es algo frecuente que la persona que lo padece no sepa reconocer su propio trastorno y le parezca natural su comportamiento y forma de pensar. Los trastornos de la personalidad se distribuyen en tres grupos basados en las similitudes descriptivas.

Tipos de trastornos

Trastornos de la personalidad del grupo A

  • Paranoide: un patrón de desconfianza y suspicacia de manera que se interpretan las intenciones de los demás como malévolas.
  • Esquizoide: un patrón de distanciamiento en las relaciones sociales y expresión restringida emocional.
  • Esquizotípica: patrón de malestar agudo en las relaciones íntimas, distorsiones cognitivas y comportamiento excéntrico.

Trastornos de la personalidad del grupo B

  • Antisocial: un patrón de desprecio y violación de los derechos de los demás.
  • Límite: un patrón de inestabilidad de las relaciones interpersonales, de la imagen de sí mismo y de los afectos, con una marcada impulsividad.
  • Histriónica: patrón de emotividad y de búsqueda de atención excesiva.
  • Narcisista: un patrón de grandiosidad, necesidad de admiración y falta de empatía.

Trastornos de la personalidad del grupo C

  • Evitativa: un patrón de inhibición social, sentimientos de inadecuación e hipersensibilidad a la evaluación negativa.
  • Dependiente: un patrón de comportamiento de sumisión y adhesión relacionado con la necesidad excesiva de ser cuidado.
  • Obsesivo-compulsivo: un patrón de preocupación por el orden, el perfeccionismo y el control.

trastornos de la personalidad

Diagnóstico de los trastornos de la personalidad

Cabe señalar que el diagnóstico de los trastornos de personalidad requiere de una evaluación de los patrones de funcionamiento del individuo a largo plazo, y se deben distinguir de las características que surgen en respuesta a los factores de estrés situacionales específicos o a los estados mentales transitorios (trastorno bipolar, depresión o trastornos de ansiedad). La prevalencia para cualquier tipo de trastorno de personalidad es del 9,1%.

El trastorno de personalidad antisocial se diagnostica más frecuentemente en los hombres; mientras que en las mujeres se diagnostican con mayor frecuencia los trastornos límites, histriónica y dependiente. Para diagnosticar en un individuo menor de 18 años un trastorno de personalidad debería aparecer las características durante al menos un año, a excepción del trastorno de personalidad antisocial que no se puede diagnosticar en personas menores de 18 años.

Los trastornos de la personalidad son tratados en uno de los módulos de nuestro posgrado en psiquiatría. Si quieres saber más pulsa aquí.

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