¿Qué son los trastornos del neurodesarrollo? Descripción y tipos

26 de mayo de 2021 |
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¿Qué son los trastornos del neurodesarrollo? Descripción y tipos


Trastornos del neurodesarrollo

Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo son un grupo de afecciones con inicio en el período del desarrollo. A menudo se manifiestan antes de que el niño empiece la escuela primaria y se caracterizan por un déficit del desarrollo que produce deficiencia del funcionamiento personal, social, académico y ocupacional.

Tipos de trastornos del neurodesarrollo

Los diagnósticos incluidos dentro de esta categoría son:

– La discapacidad intelectual

Se caracteriza por un déficit de las capacidades mentales generales, como el razonamiento, la resolución de problemas, la planificación, el pensamiento abstracto, el juicio, el aprendizaje académico y el aprendizaje de la experiencia, produciendo deficiencia en el funcionamiento adaptativo. Es una afección heterogénea con múltiples causas. La prevalencia global en la población en general es del 1% aproximadamente y las tasas varían según la edad. Cuando la discapacidad intelectual se asocia a un síndrome genético puede haber un aspecto físico característico (como por ej., síndrome de Down). Por lo general, la discapacidad intelectual no es progresiva, sin embargo, su curso puede verse afectado por las afecciones médicas o genéticas y la presencia de cuadros recurrentes (por ej., deficiencias auditivas, visuales, epilepsia).

– Los trastornos de la comunicación

Incluyen el trastorno del lenguaje, el trastorno fonológico, el trastorno de la comunicación social y el trastorno de la fluidez de inicio en la infancia. Estas alteraciones suelen iniciarse precozmente y pueden producir deficiencias funcionales durante toda la vida.

– El trastorno del espectro autista

Se caracteriza por un déficit persistente en la comunicación social y la interacción social en múltiples contextos, incluidos los déficit de la reciprocidad social, los comportamientos comunicativos no verbales utilizados para la interacción social y las habilidades para desarrollar, mantener y entender las relaciones. Además, se requiere para su diagnóstico la presencia de patrones de comportamiento, intereses o actividades de tipo restrictivo o repetitivo. Muchos pacientes con trastornos del espectro autista también tienen un deterioro intelectual y/o del lenguaje. La prevalencia es del 1% de la población en general. Los síntomas se reconocen normalmente durante los 12 y 24 meses de edad, aunque se pueden observar antes del primer año de edad si los retrasos del desarrollo son graves.

– El TDAH

Es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo definido por niveles problemáticos de inatención, desorganización y/o hiperactividad-impulsividad que interfieren con el funcionamiento o el desarrollo. La inatención se manifiesta conductualmente en el TDAH como desviación en la tarea, falta de persistencia, dificultad para mantener la atención y desorganización. La hiperactividad-impulsividad se refiere a una actividad motora excesiva y/o acciones apresuradas que se producen en el momento, sin reflexión, y que crean un gran riesgo de dañar al individuo. El TDAH empieza en la infancia y aunque no se precisa la edad de inicio deben presentarse varios síntomas antes de los 12 años de edad y manifestarse en más de un entorno social.

– Los trastornos motores del neurodesarrollo

Incluyen el trastorno del desarrollo de la coordinación, el trastorno de movimientos estereotipados y los trastornos de tics. Los movimientos estereotipados simples son frecuentes en niños pequeños con desarrollo normal. Los movimientos estereotipados complejos son muchos menos comunes y comienzan normalmente en los 3 primeros años de vida. La prevalencia es mayor en individuos con discapacidad intelectual.

 

Cabe destacar que los trastornos del neurodesarrollo pueden incluir el especificador “asociado a una afección médica o genética conocida o a un factor ambiental”.

Para diagnosticar un  trastorno del neurodesarrollo se requieren pruebas de evaluación del desarrollo que indiquen que hay alteraciones relevantes en la adquisición de las habilidades básicas, pérdidas de habilidades previamente adquiridas, problemas de comportamiento motor y dificultad en la interacción social que cause un deterioro en lo social, laboral u otras areas importantes del funcionamiento. 

Este trastorno y otros son tratados en el Posgrado de Psiquiatría de 4Doctors Medical School. Si te gustaría saber más pulsa aquí.

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