¿Conoces qué son los trastornos de ansiedad? Te lo explicamos

10 de junio de 2021 |
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¿Conoces qué son los trastornos de ansiedad? Te lo explicamos


Descripción general de los trastornos de ansiedad

Los trastornos de ansiedad son los que comparten características de miedo y ansiedad excesivos, así como alteraciones conductuales asociadas. El miedo es una reacción emocional a una amenaza inminente, real o imaginaria, mientras que la ansiedad es una respuesta anticipatoria ante una amenaza futura.

Ambas respuestas se superponen, aunque también las podemos diferenciar ya que el miedo frecuentemente se asocia a accesos de activación autonómica necesarios para la defensa o la huida. En tanto que la ansiedad está más menudo asociada con tensión muscular, vigilancia en relación a un peligro futuro y comportamientos cautelosos o evitativos.

La crisis de pánico no es exclusiva de los trastornos de ansiedad, también se puede observar en otros trastornos mentales.

Los trastornos de ansiedad se diferencian entre sí según el tipo de objetos o situaciones que inducen el miedo, la ansiedad o la conductas evitativas, y según el contenido del pensamiento o creencias asociadas. Además, estos trastornos se distinguen del miedo o la ansiedad “normal” por ser excesivo, persistente (suelen tener una duración de 6 meses o más). Cada trastorno de ansiedad se diagnostica solo cuando los síntomas no son atribuidos a los efectos fisiológicos de una sustancia o medicamento, o no se explica mejor por otro trastorno mental.

ansiedad

Tipos de trastornos de ansiedad

Ansiedad por separación

El individuo con este tipo de trastorno se encuentra asustado o ansioso ante la separación de aquellas personas por las que siente apego en un grado que es inapropiado para el desarrollo. A menudo los síntomas de angustia se desarrollan en la infancia, aunque pueden manifestarse también en la edad adulta.

Mutismo selectivo

Se caracteriza por una incapacidad para hablar en las situaciones sociales en las que hay expectativas de hablar (ej. en la escuela), a pesar de que la persona habla en otras situaciones.

Fobia específica

Presentan miedo hacia situaciones u objetos precisos o los que evitan (p. ej. volar, a las alturas, a la administración de una inyección, ver sangre). En los niños, el miedo o la ansiedad se puede expresar con llantos, rabietas, quedarse paralizados o aferrarse. En ocasiones, la fobia específica se desarrolla tras un acontecimiento traumático, por modelamiento de otros individuos que sufren traumatismo, o por la transmisión de información sobre catástrofes. Además, es más común que los sujetos presenten múltiples fobias específicas.

Trastorno de ansiedad social (fobia social)

Tiene lugar cuando la persona siente miedo o ansiedad ante las interacciones sociales y las situaciones que implican la posibilidad de ser examinado, o bien las evita.

Trastornos de pánico

En este caso la persona experimenta recurrentes e inesperadas crisis de pánico. A su vez, está persistentemente intranquila o preocupada sobre tener nuevas crisis, o cambia de manera desadaptativa su comportamiento debido a las crisis de pánico.

Agorafobia

Ocurre cuando el individuo se siente temeroso o ansioso ante dos o más de las siguientes situaciones: uso del transporte público, estar en espacios abiertos, encontrarse en lugares cerrados, hacer colas o estar en una multitud, y encontrarse solos fuera de casa en otras situaciones.

Trastorno de ansiedad generalizada

Son una ansiedad persistente y excesiva, y una preocupación sobre varios aspectos, como el trabajo y el rendimiento escolar, que la persona percibe difíciles de controlar. Además, el sujeto experimenta síntomas físicos, como inquietud, nerviosismo, fatiga, dificultad para concentrarse, irritabilidad, tensión muscular y alteraciones del sueño.

 

Abordaje de los trastornos de ansiedad

Existen escalas específicas para cada trastorno que sirven para caracterizar mejor su gravedad y captar las variaciones de la misma en el transcurso del tiempo.

El tratamiento de los pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad debe ser especifico, puede abordarse mediante psicoterapia o  farmacoterapia o ambos metodos combinados.

De las teorías que dan una explicación a los trastornos de ansiedad el enfoque psicodinámico sostiene que la ansiedad es una reacción de alarma que se presenta cuando la persona se siente amenazada.

Por otra parte, la perspectiva conductual centra su atención en las respuestas adquiridas y la tendencia de respuesta. Mientras que los teóricos cognitivos se basan en los procesos internos como la imaginacion y la manera en que pensamos de nosotros mismos y del mundo.  Actualmente existen intervenciones cognitivo conductuales como la reestructuracion cognitiva o la desensibilizacion sistemática, que son útiles en los diferentes trastornos de ansiedad. Otras como las técnicas de respiración y relajación, de solución de problemas, de modelado o aprendizaje por observación, son también empleadas.

Conoce estos trastornos y más en el posgrado de Psiquiatría de 4Doctors Medical School. Si te gustaría saber más pulsa aquí.

Posgrado en psiquiatría

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