¿Qué es el trastorno bipolar? Todo lo que debes saber

29 de abril de 2021 |
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¿Qué es el trastorno bipolar? Todo lo que debes saber


Trastorno Bipolar

El trastorno bipolar es una enfermedad mental crónica que afecta a los mecanismos que regulan el estado de ánimo (animostato). Estas variaciones anímicas influyen de forma significativa en los aspectos sociales de la persona que tiene la enfermedad. Esto se presenta en forma de episodios recurrentes que van desde la manía o hipomanía (alegría, exaltación o euforia), hasta la depresión (tristeza, inhibición e ideas de muerte).

Episodio maníaco

Para un diagnóstico del trastorno bipolar es necesario que se cumplan los siguientes criterios para un episodio maníaco:

1. Un período bien definido de estado de ánimo anormal y persistentemente elevado, expansivo e irritable, aumento anormal y persistente de la actividad o la energía que dura como mínimo una semana y está presente casi todos los días.

2. Durante el período de alteración del estado de ánimo y aumento de la energía o la actividad, existen tres o más de los siguientes síntomas o cuatro si el estado de ánimo es irritable:

  • Aumento de la autoestima o sentimientos de grandeza
  • Disminución de la necesidad de dormir
  • Más hablador de lo habitual
  • Fuga de ideas
  • Facilidad de distracción
  • Aumento de la actividad dirigida a un objetivo (social, laboral o sexual)
  • Participación excesiva en actividades que tienen consecuencias dolorosas (compras desenfrenadas, juergas, indiscreciones sexuales o inversiones de dinero imprudentes)

3. La alteración del estado de ánimo es suficientemente grave para causar un deterioro importante en el funcionamiento social o laboral, que requiere hospitalización por la presencia de síntomas psicóticos, con el fin de evitar daños a sí mismos o a otros

4. El episodio no se puede atribuir a los efectos fisiológicos de una sustancia, droga, medicamentos o afección médica

Por otro lado, antes o después del episodio maníaco pueden haber existido episodios hipomaníacos o episodios de depresión mayor.

Trastorno bipolar

 

Episodio hipomaníaco

El episodio maníaco comparte la mayoría de los criterios del episodio hipomaníaco, con la diferencia de que en este último hay ausencia de características psicóticas y los síntomas no son suficientemente graves para causar alteraciones en la funcionalidad o necesitar hospitalización.

Episodio de depresión mayor

Los criterios de un episodio de depresión mayor son:

1.Se caracteriza por cinco o más de los síntomas siguientes durante al menos dos semanas y representan un cambio del funcionamiento anterior. Al menos uno de los síntomas es un estado de ánimo deprimido o pérdida de interés o placer.

  • Estado de ánimo deprimido la mayor parte del día o casi todos los días
  • Disminución importante del interés o el placer por todas o casi todas las actividades la mayor parte del día
  • Pérdida importante de peso sin hacer dieta o aumento de peso; disminución o aumento del apetito casi todos los días
  • Insomnio o hipersomnia casi todos los días
  • Agitación o retraso psicomotor casi todos los días
  • Fatiga o pérdida de energía casi todos los días
  • Sentimiento de inutilidad o culpabilidad excesiva o inapropiada casi todos los días
  • Disminución de la capacidad para pensar, concentrarse o tomar decisiones casi todos los días
  • Pensamientos de muerte recurrentes, ideas suicidas o intentos de suicidio

2. Los síntomas causan malestar clínicamente significativos o deterioro en lo social, laboral u otras áreas importantes de funcionamiento

3. El episodio no se puede atribuir a los efectos fisiológicos de una sustancia o de otra afección médica

 

El trastorno bipolar es estudiado más en profundidad en nuestro Posgrado en Psiquiatría, a través de uno de los módulos del programa.

posgrado psiquiatría

Conoce más a cerca de este programa pulsando aquí.

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